Having a clear strategy for managing COVID-19 is an essential part of our toolbox to reduce mortality across the world.

Dr Shankara Chetty (South Africa) has been a leading voice for using straightforward therapeutic approaches to prevent death, hospitalisation and need for oxygen in his patients. In this discussion we will also look at the relevance of serum ACE-2 in the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 and how the research connects to clinical presentation.

Join us to get a better understanding of this journey.

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Geert Vanden Bossche PhD, is an internationally recognised vaccine developer having worked as the head of the Vaccine Development Office at the German Centre for Infection Research. Coordinated Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation’s Ebola Vaccine Program and contributed to the implementation of an integrated vaccine work plan in collaboration with Global Health Partners (WHO, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, CDC, UNICEF), regulators (FDA) and vaccine manufacturers to enable timely deployment or stockpiling of Ebola vaccine candidates.
Highlighting the principle of using a prophylactic vaccine in the midst of a pandemic. Likely to create more more viral variants in the process.
Sharing his perspective on mass vaccination in COVID-19.


SARS-COV2 takes 10 hours after cell entry to produce thousands of new viral particles. This spread occurs without symptoms as the interferon response is blocked by the virus. Interferon is a signalling protein that warns other cells to stop intracellular machinery that could make more virus.

Nose to lungs = 10 hours
Lung to Alveolar Pneumocytes = 20 hours
Alveolar Pneumocytes to Endothelial cells = 30 hours
Endothelial cells to small intestines = 40 hours

Our research is pointing to Neutrophil Extracellular traps (NET’s – early defence system) which from nets in the blood vessels to block virus from spreading as the primary trigger of autoimmunity.

Virus trapped in NET’s, in contact with serum ACE-2 is then processed by our immune system to cause autoantibodies in another 8 days.

This will only occur in people with comorbidities associated with elevated serum ACE-2 (older age, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease).

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McMillan Research does not currently have real world evidence data regarding all aspects of autoimmunity in COVID-19. The theory of autoimmunity in COVID-19 could form the basis for clinical investigation and medical monitoring. There are many challenges associated with clinical trials, especially clinical human trials. A clinical trial study requires a comprehensive development plan, and may use clinical biostatistics. A centre for clinical research focused on long COVID, could potentially provide much needed solutions.