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Exploration of ACE-2, a pivotal receptor in COVID-19, discussed by Professor Anthony J Turner.
  • Professor Turner’s background in biochemistry and research journey from Cambridge to Leeds. 1:25

  • Discovery of ACE-2 as the entry receptor for COVID-19 and its significance in the virus’s mechanism. 1:34

  • Collaboration and exchange programs between University of Leeds and University of West Indies in Kingston. 4:28

  • Initial research focus on proteolytic enzymes and metabolic peptides led to studying ACE and its inhibitors. 5:59

  • Investigation into the integration and physiological role of ACE in cellular membranes. 7:03

Identification of ACE-2 enzyme as a key regulator in the cardiovascular system, counterbalancing ACE.
  • ACE-2 enzyme discovered to oppose ACE in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance. 8:01

  • ACE-2 converts angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, maintaining cardiovascular system balance. 10:53

  • Surprise finding that ACE-2 functions differently from ACE, leading to new research directions. 11:26

  • Pharmaceutical company independently discovers ACE-2 potential for heart disease treatment. 12:02

  • Lack of knowledge exchange between academic and pharmaceutical groups on ACE-2 discovery. 12:42

  • Publication of ACE-2 discovery in a journal in mid-2000. 13:13

Exploration of ACE-2 as a key receptor for viruses, including COVID-19, through enzyme action and shed form.
  • Discovery of ACE-2 and its role as a viral receptor through enzyme action. 13:46

  • Interest in ACE-2 waned after the SARS epidemic until revived by the COVID-19 pandemic. 17:32

  • ACE-2 exists in both membrane-bound and soluble forms, with the shed form floating in the bloodstream. 18:22

Insights on ACE-2 receptor role in COVID-19, rapid scientific progress, and future challenges.
  • ACE-2 receptor binds to viral spike protein, leading to potential autoimmune response. 19:54

  • Imbalance in ACE and ACE II enzymes can cause severe cardiovascular effects in COVID-19. 21:04

  • Scientific community has rapidly shared knowledge and developed vaccines and therapeutics. 23:30

  • Global vaccine rollout progress is at 3.4%, indicating a long road ahead in controlling the pandemic. 24:41

  • Expectations for COVID-19 control extend for many years with emphasis on vaccine and therapeutic development. 25:13

Exploration of potential COVID-19 treatments and vaccines, alongside the transition from ACE-2 research to dementia.
  • Roll out vaccines widely and update regularly to combat virus variants. 25:32

  • Research on therapeutics including new drugs and pre-existing ones like dexamethasone. 26:02

  • Global vaccination program needed alongside drug development for effective control. 27:21

  • Exploration of drugs interrupting virus signaling cascade for therapeutic benefits. 28:25

  • Forty years of direct research experience led to reflection and encouragement of new research directions. 29:54

  • Transition from ACE-2 research to dementia due to discovery of enzyme’s role in Alzheimer’s disease. 31:20

  • Transition to dementia research was a result of chance discovery of enzyme’s role in Alzheimer’s disease around 2000. 31:26

Role of enzymes in Alzheimer's disease and potential decoy therapy for COVID-19 using ACE2 receptor.
  • Enzymes in the brain metabolize peptides, leading to accumulation of amyloid beta peptide in Alzheimer’s disease. 31:39

  • ACE and ACE2 enzymes play roles in clearing amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease and as potential decoy therapy for COVID-19. 32:20

  • Research on using peptides similar to ACE2 receptor as decoy therapy for COVID-19 to block virus binding. 33:06

  • ACE2 plays a crucial role in controlling blood pressure and its inactivation by the virus leads to severe effects. 34:07

  • Various viruses, including coronaviruses, use ACE2 receptor, highlighting its significance in viral infections. 35:09

  • Evolutionarily, viruses use ACE2 receptor due to its convenient docking point and structural advantage. 36:34

  • Global pandemic may lead to positive changes in environmental awareness and practices, with potential long-term benefits. 37:42

Discussion on positive outcomes of pandemic, emphasizing environmental impact and global cooperation.
  • Importance of treating the environment to prevent virus mutation between species. 37:49

  • Hope for leaders to invest in science and global cooperation for better pandemic preparedness. 38:09

  • Optimistic outlook on pandemic leading to positive changes in the world’s direction. 38:45

  • Emphasis on handling the world’s resources more fairly as a humanity. 39:10

  • Acknowledgment of differing perspectives on positive influences post-pandemic. 39:28

  • Plans for future conversations with experienced scientists on their opinions. 39:56

  • Closing remarks and gratitude for viewers, with a focus on bringing more scientists for discussions. 40:10